Nuthatches are found right across the northern palearctic from Morocco and Iberia to Kamchatka and Japan, south to Turkey, Iran, the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia. In Europe they are absent from Ireland, much of northern Scotland, Fenno-Scandia and northermost Russia.
    In Britain they are widespread in Wales, most of England and southern Scotland. The most striking feature in their distribution has been their steady northwards expansion. Breeding in Scotland was first confimed only as recently as 1989. Bird Atlas 2007-2011 recorded a 35% range expansion since the 1968-72 Breeding Atlas, almost all of which occurred in northern England  and southern Scotland. BBS returns showed an 82% population increase in England between 1995 and 2010 and a 52% increase in Wales in the same period. There was also a substantial increase in Scotland but there are insufficient data to quantify it.
    In Wiltshire they are common, and have been since at least since the mid 19th century, in the well-wooded areas of the west, southwest and southeast of the county, and in the areas around Marlborough and  Braydon Forest. Birds of Wiltshire recorded them in 336 tetrads with breeding in 150. WTA2 found them in 390 tetrads with breeding in 164.

The following references are used throughout these species’ accounts, in the abbreviated form given in quotation marks:
“1968-72 Breeding Atlas” – Sharrack, J.T.R. 1976:  The Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland. T. & A. Poyser
1981-84 Winter Atlas” – Lack, P.C. 1986:  The Atlas of Wintering Birds in Britain and Ireland. T. & A. Poyser
1988-91 Breeding Atlas” – Gibbons, D.W., Reid, J.B. & Chapman, R.A. 1993: The New Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland 1988-91. T. & A. Poyser
Birds of Wiltshire” – Ferguson-Lees, I.J. et al. 2007: Birds of Wiltshire, published by the tetrad atlas group of the Wiltshire Ornithological Society after mapping fieldwork 1995-2000. Wiltshire Ornithological Society.
Bird Atlas 2007-2011”-– Balmer, D.E., Gillings, S., Caffrey, B.J., Swann, R.L., Downie, I.S. and Fuller, R.J. 2013: The Breeding and Wintering Birds of Britain and Ireland. BTO Books. 
WTA2” – ("Wiltshire Tetrad Atlas 2 ") the present electronic publication, bringing together the Wiltshire data from “Birds of Wiltshire” and “Bird Atlas 2007-11”, together with data from further fieldwork carried out in 2011 and 2012.
"Hobby" - the annual bird report of the Wiltshire Ornithological Society.